International Journal of Dental Medicine

Submit a Manuscript

Publishing with us to make your research visible to the widest possible audience.

Propose a Special Issue

Building a community of authors and readers to discuss the latest research and develop new ideas.

Potential Risk Factors for Aerosol Transmission in the Dental Office and Strategies for Prevention and Control

Objective: Dental offices, due to the special characteristics of diagnostic and treatment operations and airborne diseases, are exposed to relatively closed environments with high concentrations of aerosols for a long period of time, and there is a possibility of disease transmission through aerosols. This paper introduces and analyzes the sources, distribution, hazards, and prevention and control strategies of oral bioaerosols, hoping to provide some references for reducing the hazards of oral aerosols and optimizing errors and omissions in dental treatment. Materials and Methods: By reviewing and summarizing the way of generating oral aerosols, the factors affecting their distribution in the past two decades, and reviewing the related literature, we explored the hazards of oral aerosols to the organism and the reasonable preventive and control measures. Results: Aerosol in dental clinic can spread through many forms, such as saliva of patients, water vapor splashing from dental high-speed mobile phone operation, etc., which increases the risk of infection between doctors and patients. Conclusion: A large amount of aerosols will be generated in the process of oral diagnosis and treatment, and the pathogens contaminating the air can directly lead to respiratory tract infections, and can also indirectly infect human beings through contaminated medical devices. The risk of aerosol transmission can be reduced through good scientific protection, standardized operation, rinsing and disinfection, and the use of isolation and strong suction equipment.

Dental Office, Bioaerosols, Prevention

APA Style

Chu-Han Song, Xiang Guo, Xian-Yan Lin, Jin-Mei Guo, Ya-Xin Bai, et al. (2023). Potential Risk Factors for Aerosol Transmission in the Dental Office and Strategies for Prevention and Control. International Journal of Dental Medicine, 9(2), 32-37.

ACS Style

Chu-Han Song; Xiang Guo; Xian-Yan Lin; Jin-Mei Guo; Ya-Xin Bai, et al. Potential Risk Factors for Aerosol Transmission in the Dental Office and Strategies for Prevention and Control. Int. J. Dent. Med. 2023, 9(2), 32-37. doi: 10.11648/j.ijdm.20230902.11

AMA Style

Chu-Han Song, Xiang Guo, Xian-Yan Lin, Jin-Mei Guo, Ya-Xin Bai, et al. Potential Risk Factors for Aerosol Transmission in the Dental Office and Strategies for Prevention and Control. Int J Dent Med. 2023;9(2):32-37. doi: 10.11648/j.ijdm.20230902.11

Copyright © 2023 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

1. Singh TS, Mabe OD. Occupational exposure to endotoxin from contaminated dental unit waterlines. SADJ, 2009, 64 (1): 8, 10-12.
2. Szymańska J. Dental bioaerosol as an occupational hazard in a dentist's workplace. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2007; 14 (2): 203-207.
3. Harrel SK, Molinari J. Aerosols and splatter in dentistry: a brief review of the literature and infection control implications. J Am Dent Assoc. 2004 Apr; 135 (4): 429-37.
4. Rautemaa R, Nordberg A, Wuolijoki-Saaristo K, Meurman JH. Bacterial aerosols in dental practice - a potential hospital infection problem? J Hosp Infect. 2006 Sep; 64 (1): 76-81.
5. Kumbargere Nagraj S, Eachempati P, Paisi M, Nasser M, Sivaramakrishnan G, Francis T, Verbeek JH. Preprocedural mouth rinses for preventing transmission of infectious diseases through aerosols in dental healthcare providers. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2022 Aug 22; 8 (8): CD013826.
6. Leggat PA, Kedjarune U. Bacterial aerosols in the dental clinic: a review. Int Dent J. 2001 Feb; 51 (1): 39-44.
7. Seppänen L, Lemberg KK, Lauhio A, Lindqvist C, Rautemaa R. Is dental treatment of an infected tooth a risk factor for locally invasive spread of infection? J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2011 Apr; 69 (4): 986-93.
8. Moschovis PP, Lombay J, Rooney J, Schenkel SR, Singh D, Rezaei SJ, Salo N, Gong A, Yonker LM, Shah J, Hayden D, Hibberd PL, Demokritou P, Kinane TB. The effect of activity and face masks on exhaled particles in children. Pediatr Investig. 2023 May 3; 7 (2): 75-85.
9. Bennett AM, Fulford MR, Walker JT, Bradshaw DJ, Martin MV, Marsh PD. Microbial aerosols in general dental practice. Br Dent J. 2000 Dec 23; 189 (12): 664-7.
10. Takanabe Y, Maruoka Y, Kondo J, Yagi S, Chikazu D, Okamoto R, Saitoh M. Dispersion of aerosols generated during dental therapy. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 Oct 27; 18 (21): 11279.
11. Alkhalaf A, Aljaroudi E, Al-Hulami M, Gaffar B, Almas K. Efficacy of Surgical Masks Versus N95 Respirators for the Prevention of COVID-19 in Dental Settings: A Systematic Review. Cureus. 2023 Apr 16; 15 (4): e37631.
12. Watanabe A, Tamaki N, Yokota K, Matsuyama M, Kokeguchi S. Use of ATP bioluminescence to survey the spread of aerosol and splatter during dental treatments. J Hosp Infect. 2018 Jul; 99 (3): 303-305.
13. Gurgel BCV, Borges SB, Borges REA, Calderon PDS. COVID-19: Perspectives for the management of dental care and education. J Appl Oral Sci. 2020 Sep 28; 28: e20200358.
14. Wang CC, Prather KA, Sznitman J, Jimenez JL, Lakdawala SS, Tufekci Z, Marr LC. Airborne transmission of respiratory viruses. Science. 2021 Aug 27; 373 (6558): eabd9149.
15. Ang JW, Li Y, Eames I, Chan PK, Ridgway GL. Factors involved in the aerosol transmission of infection and control of ventilation in healthcare premises. J Hosp Infect. 2006 Oct; 64 (2): 100-14.
16. Vergara-Buenaventura A, Castro-Ruiz C. Use of mouthwashes against COVID-19 in dentistry. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2020 Oct; 58 (8): 924-927.
17. Alghamdi W, Neamatallah AA, Alshamrani MM, Mehmadi FA, El-Saed A. Distribution and the trend of airborne particles and bio-aerosol concentration in pediatric intensive care units with different ventilation setting at two hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. J Infect Public Health. 2023 Apr; 16 (4): 588-595.
18. Chen C, Zhao B. Some questions on dispersion of human exhaled droplets in ventilation room: answers from numerical investigation. Indoor Air. 2010 Apr; 20 (2): 95-111.
19. Polednik B. Aerosol and bioaerosol particles in a dental office. Environ Res. 2014 Oct; 134: 405-9.
20. Kedjarune U, Kukiattrakoon B, Yapong B, Chowanadisai S, Leggat P. Bacterial aerosols in the dental clinic: effect of time, position and type of treatment. Int Dent J. 2000 Apr; 50 (2): 103-7.
21. Amato A, Caggiano M, Amato M, Moccia G, Capunzo M, De Caro F. Infection control in dental practice during the COVID-19 pandemic. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Jul 2; 17 (13): 4769.
22. Van der Weijden F. Aerosol in the oral health-care setting: a misty topic. Clin Oral Investig. 2023 Jun; 27 (Suppl 1): 23-32.
23. Zemouri C, de Soet H, Crielaard W, Laheij A. A scoping review on bio-aerosols in healthcare and the dental environment. PLoS One. 2017 May 22; 12 (5): e0178007.
24. Umar D, Basheer B, Husain A, Baroudi K, Ahamed F, Kumar A. Evaluation of bacterial contamination in a clinical environment. J Int Oral Health. 2015 Jan; 7 (1): 53-5.
25. Perdelli F, Spagnolo AM, Cristina ML, Sartini M, Malcontenti R, Dallera M, Ottria G, Lombardi R, Orlando P. Evaluation of contamination by blood aerosols produced during various healthcare procedures. J Hosp Infect. 2008 Oct; 70 (2): 174-9.
26. Prospero E, Savini S, Annino I. Microbial aerosol contamination of dental healthcare workers' faces and other surfaces in dental practice. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2003 Feb; 24 (2): 139-41.
27. Veena HR, Mahantesha S, Joseph PA, Patil SR, Patil SH. Dissemination of aerosol and splatter during ultrasonic scaling: a pilot study. J Infect Public Health. 2015 May-Jun; 8 (3): 260-5.
28. Raut AW, Meshram PV, Raut RA. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) transmission through aerosols in restorative and endodontic practice: Strategies for prevention. Ann Afr Med. 2022 Jan-Mar; 21 (1): 1-7.
29. Dutil S, Meriaux A, de Latremoille MC, et al. Measurement of airborne bacteria and endotoxin generated during dental cleaning. J Occup Environ Hyg, 2009, 6 (2): 121-130.
30. Deana NF, Seiffert A, Aravena-Rivas Y, Alonso-Coello P, Muñoz-Millán P, Espinoza-Espinoza G, Pineda P, Zaror C. Recommendations for Safe Dental Care: A Systematic Review of Clinical Practice Guidelines in the First Year of the COVID-19 Pandemic. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 Sep 24; 18 (19): 10059.
31. Wood ME, Stockwell RE, Johnson GR, Ramsay KA, Sherrard LJ, Jabbour N, Ballard E, O'Rourke P, Kidd TJ, Wainwright CE, Knibbs LD, Sly PD, Morawska L, Bell SC. Face Masks and Cough Etiquette Reduce the Cough Aerosol Concentration of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in People with Cystic Fibrosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2018 Feb 1; 197 (3): 348-355.
32. Fennelly KP, Martyny JW, Fulton KE, Orme IM, Cave DM, Heifets LB. Cough-generated aerosols of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a new method to study infectiousness. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2004 Mar 1; 169 (5): 604-9.
33. Batista RCS, Arruda CVB, Cassimiro M, Gominho L, Moura AC, Albuquerque DS, Romeiro K. The Role of the Dental Surgeon in Controlling the Dissemination of COVID-19: A Literature Review. ScientificWorldJournal. 2020 Oct 1; 2020: 7945309.
34. Kaur R, Singh I, Vandana KL, Desai R. Effect of chlorhexidine, povidone iodine, and ozone on microorganisms in dental aerosols: randomized double-blind clinical trial. Indian J Dent Res. 2014 Mar-Apr; 25 (2): 160-5.
35. Gupta G, Mitra D, Ashok KP, Gupta A, Soni S, Ahmed S, Arya A. Efficacy of preprocedural mouth rinsing in reducing aerosol contamination produced by ultrasonic scaler: a pilot study. J Periodontol. 2014 Apr; 85 (4): 562-8.
36. Jacks ME. A laboratory comparison of evacuation devices on aerosol reduction. J Dent Hyg. 2002; 76 (3): 202-6.
37. Li Y, Leung GM, Tang JW, Yang X, Chao CY, Lin JZ, Lu JW, Nielsen PV, Niu J, Qian H, Sleigh AC, Su HJ, Sundell J, Wong TW, Yuen PL. Role of ventilation in airborne transmission of infectious agents in the built environment - a multidisciplinary systematic review. Indoor Air. 2007 Feb; 17 (1): 2-18.
38. Hallier C, Williams DW, Potts AJ, Lewis MA. A pilot study of bioaerosol reduction using an air cleaning system during dental procedures. Br Dent J. 2010 Oct 23; 209 (8): E14.